Geophysical investigations along the proposed pipeline route will assist in characterizing subsurface conditions and potential geohazards on lake/sea bed.
Marine geophysical survey provides very useful information about subsurface stratigraphy and conditions at river crossings.
A four-electrode wenner array resistivity sounding technique is commonly used to measure soil resistivity for grounding site selection.
Geophysical investigation for power plant site selection includes:
- Determining depth to bedrock,
- Locating faults in bedrock,
- Determining soil and rock shear strength, and
- Identifying voids, sinkholes
Downhole seismic survey provides soil and rock modulus for windmill site selection. In addition, seismic refraction and surface wave surveys are also commonly used to get the p-wave and s-wave velocities of the soil and rock providing soil velocity increases with depth.